A new understanding of the physics of conductive materials has been uncovered by scientists observing the unusual movement of electrons in graphene.
It is probably fair to say that research on 'simple graphene' has already passed its zenith.
Prof Sir Andre Geim, Nature, 2013
The isolation of graphene at The University of Manchester led to the discovery of a whole family of 2D materials, including hexagonal boron nitride and molybdenum disulphide. These can be combined with graphene to create new 'designer materials' to produce applications originally limited to science fiction.
Combinations of these 2D materials are called heterostructures - tiny towers with different layers of different materials. Any combination is possible which means new materials can be created from the ground up on an atomic level to created materials tailored to exact functions.